Pharmacological effects of steroid hormones

Monday 15th July 2019 Back to list

Steroid hormones are a class of fat-soluble hormones which are structurally all cyclopentane polyhydrophenanthrene derivatives. Vertebrate adrenal hormone
Steroid hormones [2]
Two types of adrenal cortex hormones and sex hormones.
(1) Adrenal cortex hormones. Adrenal cortical hormone is produced by the secretion of the adrenal cortex. At present, there are more than 30 kinds of steroid compounds isolated from the adrenal cortex extract, and the following physiological effects are known.
The physiological functions of adrenocortical hormones are mainly manifested in two aspects:
1 regulate sugar metabolism: inhibit the oxidation of sugar, increase blood sugar; promote the conversion of protein into sugar. Such functions include corticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, 17-hydroxycorticosterone (hydrocortisone) and 17-hydroxy-11-dehydrocorticosterone (cortisone). These hormones also have good anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects and are commonly used hormone drugs.
2 Regulate water and salt metabolism: promote the retention of sodium ions in the body and discharge excessive potassium ions to regulate water and salt metabolism. Such hormones include 11-deoxycorticosterone, 17-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone and aldosterone. Among them, aldosterone regulates water and salt metabolism 30-120 times more than deoxycorticosterone.
Abnormal secretion of adrenocortical hormone will cause disorders of glucose metabolism and inorganic salt metabolism.
(2) sex hormones. Sex hormones are steroid hormones and can be divided into male hormones and estrogens. They are related to the sex of animals and the development of secondary sexual characteristics. The secretion of sex hormones is regulated by the gonadotropin of the pituitary gland.
1 Androgen: Among the androgens are testosterone, androsterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone. Testosterone is secreted by the interstitial cells of the testes and is the most important androgen in the body. Androstenone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone are metabolites of testosterone (testosterone → androstenone → androstenedion → dehydroepiandrosterone).
The adrenal cortex also secretes an androgen, the adrenal androstenone.
Androgen mainly promotes the development and maintenance of male sexual organs and secondary sexual characteristics, as well as promotes protein synthesis and muscles. Testosterone has the highest activity in androgen, which is 6 times that of androstenone and 18 times that of dehydroepiandrosterone. Various androgens can be divided into two categories.
2 estrogen: estrogen can be divided into two categories.
Follicles: secreted by the ovaries, including estrone, estradiol, and estriol. It has the functions of promoting sexual organ development, ovulation, and promoting the development of secondary sexual characteristics. Among them, estradiol has the highest activity, about 6 times that of estrone and 200 times that of estriol. These three hormones can be transformed into each other in the body.
Luteinizing hormone: produced by the secretion of the corpus luteum of the ovary, mainly progesterone (also known as progesterone). It has the functions of promoting uterus and mammary gland development and preventing abortion.
Although the functions of androgens and estrogens are very different, they are structurally similar. Both types of sex hormones can be derived from cholesterol, and both can be transformed in the body. It has been shown that there is a certain proportion of two types of sex hormones in both male and female animals, and there is a balance between them. Male animals contain more androgens, while females contain more estrogens.